Great graphic reminder by Beware of Images of the five most common fallacies. Though often used unintentionally, fallacies are often used purposefully to win arguments regardless of the merits. Very popular in online discussions.
We are NOT endorsing their usage, but we want all liberals to be aware of them, and to easily spot and point them in arguments.
In logic and rhetoric, a fallacy is usually an improper argumentation in reasoning often resulting in a misconception or presumption. Literally, a fallacy is “an error in reasoning that renders an argument logically invalid”. By accident or design, fallacies may exploit emotional triggers in the listener or participant (appeal to emotion), or take advantage of social relationships between people (e.g. argument from authority). Fallacious arguments are often structured using rhetorical patterns that obscure any logical argument.
For those who are interested in an ultimate source about the fallacies usage we recommend studying “THE ART OF CONTROVERSY” the essay by a German 19th century philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer first published in English in the 1890s, Schopenhauer explores stratagems for rational debate: by “controversy” Schopenhauer means deliberate provocation of an intellectual opponent, and as a way to shock one’s own thinking out of its complacency. Also discussed are intellectual approaches to appreciating beauty, an appreciation of “genius and virtue,” and more.
In the era of countless online comment threads using fallacies as a way to win arguments, “THE ART OF CONTROVERSY” is a must read not only for students of philosophy and of 19th-century intellectualism
The Essays of Arthur Schopenhauer: THE ART OF CONTROVERSY